In 2003 Afghanistan, being one of the member states of the UN, developed key policy documents such as the Disaster Management Framework, National Strategy for Disaster Management, and National Disaster Management Plan. The National Disaster Management Commission, under the leadership of the president has been established. On the 27 Dalwa1351 (1971), based on ordinance 56, the Department of Disaster Preparedness (DDP), Today known as the Afghanistan National Disaster Management Authority (ANDMA), was established as an “executive arm” of the commission.

The Afghanistan National Disaster Management Authority (ANDMA) is the principal institution at the national level with the mandate to coordinate and manage all aspects related to disaster mitigation, preparedness, and response through its national and provincial offices.
A presidential decree of May 2007 empowers ANDMA as a nodal agency responsible for coordinating all disaster related intervention in the country. However, ANDMA lacks capacity to undertake this responsibility in an effective manner
ANDMA has provincial Directorates in All 34 provinces of Afghanistan. The authority is manned by 469 people. Capacity of directorates differs from province to province depending on availability of staff, amount of operational resources, security, geographic terrain, and multiple other factors.

Government roles during emergency is highlighted below, but is not limited to the following tasks:

• Activation of the National Emergency Coordination through NDMC (including emergency response and international appeals). Declaration of State of Emergency or Disaster as well as mobilization of international assistance.
• ANDMA Directorate provides the secretariat support for PDMC/NDMC and coordinates the humanitarian response along with line departments/ministries and humanitarian actors. While the Department/Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development focuses on social protection, mitigation and long term recovery/development for the affected community aimed at resilience building.
• Ministry of Defense as a member of NDMC provides air transportation as well as search and rescue during major emergencies only as last resort.
• MAIL takes part in food security assessments, food provision and drought response coordination.
• Ministry of Public Health provides health assistance to the affected, emergency sanitation and safe water; establishment of mobile clinics, surveillance and disease control.
• Ministry of Refugees and Returns (MoRR) coordinates an influx of conflict induced internally displaced people (IDPs), undocumented migrants and refugee returnees. This includes attending to the protection related issues of these individuals.
• Department of Meteorology provides weather related information and early warning information. They will work closely with ANDMA, Ministry of information and culture, the media and mobile telephone companies in disseminating information.
• Ministry of Transport and Aviation – provides transport and logistic support.

The Inter-Agency Cluster System
The Cluster is a forum that seeks to provide the basis for effective, coherent and complete humanitarian response by all actors that seek to intervene during an emergency. In accordance with the Humanitarian Reform Review and the Transformative Agenda the Inter-Cluster system is activated in Afghanistan through the Humanitarian Coordinator/HCT and its coordination is facilitated through OCHA. The purpose of the cluster system is to:

• Facilitate the exchange of ideas, information and knowledge – Disaster impact and evolution; this also includes providing situational cluster specific reports.
• Participate in inter-agency assessments,
• Map capacities and operational presence (3Ws) of partners/agencies, and use the capacities (human/Material) for emergency response.
• Understand and map needs – carry out needs and vulnerability analysis and ranking.
• Plan and co-ordinate the matching of needs to capacities? no duplication and ? gaps
• Mobilize and pool common resources for humanitarian and emergency response.
• Develop/use standardized and harmonized procedures – SOPs/Assessment tools.

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